Preferred viewing locations: A validation and an extension

Antje Nuthmann, Reinhold Kliegl

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Rayner (1979) established the Preferred Viewing Location (PVL) for reading fixations: typically, readers fixate at a location slightly left of word centre. Despite its simple elegance, the design of figure 2 of this citation classic has not become a standard for illustrating this phenomenon. We like to pay tribute to this core result (and its visual- isation) with a cross-language validation of the PVL. We also extend our analysis to include PVLs of forward and backward refixations and use the new results to qualify proposals of refixation preprogramming.